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httpipe: Lua HTTP client cosocket driver for nginx-module-lua, interfaces are more flexible

Installation

If you haven't set up RPM repository subscription, sign up. Then you can proceed with the following steps.

CentOS/RHEL 6, 7, 8 or Amazon Linux 2

yum -y install https://extras.getpagespeed.com/release-latest.rpm
yum -y install lua-resty-httpipe

To use this Lua library with NGINX, ensure that nginx-module-lua is installed.

This document describes lua-resty-httpipe v0.5 released on Nov 25 2015.


Lua HTTP client cosocket driver for OpenResty / ngx_lua.

Status

Ready for testing. Probably production ready in most cases, though not yet proven in the wild. Please check the issues list and let me know if you have any problems / questions.

Features

  • HTTP 1.0/1.1 and HTTPS
  • Flexible interface design
  • Streaming reader and uploads
  • Chunked-encoding request / response body
  • Sets the timeout for read and send operations
  • Limit the maximum response body size
  • Keepalive

Synopsis

server {

  listen 9090;

  location /echo {
    content_by_lua '
      local raw_header = ngx.req.raw_header()

      if ngx.req.get_method() == "GET" then
          ngx.header["Content-Length"] = #raw_header
      end

      ngx.req.read_body()
      local body, err = ngx.req.get_body_data()

      ngx.print(raw_header)
      ngx.print(body)
    ';
  }

  location /simple {
    content_by_lua '
      local httpipe = require "resty.httpipe"

      local hp, err = httpipe:new()
      if not hp then
          ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to new httpipe: ", err)
          return ngx.exit(503)
      end

      hp:set_timeout(5 * 1000) -- 5 sec

      local res, err = hp:request("127.0.0.1", 9090, {
                                     method = "GET", path = "/echo" })
      if not res then
          ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to request: ", err)
          return ngx.exit(503)
      end

      ngx.status = res.status

      for k, v in pairs(res.headers) do
          ngx.header[k] = v
      end

      ngx.say(res.body)
    ';
  }

  location /generic {
    content_by_lua '
      local cjson = require "cjson"
      local httpipe = require "resty.httpipe"

      local hp, err = httpipe:new(10) -- chunk_size = 10
      if not hp then
          ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to new httpipe: ", err)
          return ngx.exit(503)
      end

      hp:set_timeout(5 * 1000) -- 5 sec

      local ok, err = hp:connect("127.0.0.1", 9090)
      if not ok then
          ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to connect: ", err)
          return ngx.exit(503)
      end

      local ok, err = hp:send_request{ method = "GET", path = "/echo" }
      if not ok then
          ngx.log(ngx.ERR, "failed to send request: ", err)
          return ngx.exit(503)
      end

      -- full streaming parser

      while true do
          local typ, res, err = hp:read()
          if not typ then
              ngx.say("failed to read: ", err)
              return
          end

          ngx.say("read: ", cjson.encode({typ, res}))

          if typ == 'eof' then
              break
          end
      end
    ';
  }

  location /advanced {
    content_by_lua '
      local httpipe = require "resty.httpipe"

      local hp, err = httpipe:new()

      hp:set_timeout(5 * 1000) -- 5 sec

      local r0, err = hp:request("127.0.0.1", 9090, {
                                     method = "GET", path = "/echo",
                                     stream = true })

      -- from one http stream to another, just like a unix pipe

      local pipe = r0.pipe

      pipe:set_timeout(5 * 1000) -- 5 sec

      --[[
          local headers = {["Content-Length"] = r0.headers["Content-Length"]}
          local r1, err = pipe:request("127.0.0.1", 9090, {
                                           method = "POST", path = "/echo",
                                           headers = headers,
                                           body = r0.body_reader })
      --]]
      local r1, err = pipe:request("127.0.0.1", 9090, {
                                       method = "POST", path = "/echo" })

      ngx.status = r1.status

      for k, v in pairs(r1.headers) do
          ngx.header[k] = v
      end

      ngx.say(r1.body)
    ';
  }

}

A typical output of the /simple location defined above is:

GET /echo HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
User-Agent: Resty/HTTPipe-1.00
Accept: */*

A typical output of the /generic location defined above is:

read: ["statusline","200"]
read: ["header",["Server","openresty\/1.5.12.1","Server: openresty\/1.5.12.1"]]
read: ["header",["Date","Tue, 10 Jun 2014 07:29:57 GMT","Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2014 07:29:57 GMT"]]
read: ["header",["Content-Type","text\/plain","Content-Type: text\/plain"]]
read: ["header",["Connection","keep-alive","Connection: keep-alive"]]
read: ["header",["Content-Length","84","Content-Length: 84"]]
read: ["header_end"]
read: ["body","GET \/echo "]
read: ["body","HTTP\/1.1\r\n"]
read: ["body","Host: 127."]
read: ["body","0.0.1\r\nUse"]
read: ["body","r-Agent: R"]
read: ["body","esty\/HTTPi"]
read: ["body","pe-1.00\r\nA"]
read: ["body","ccept: *\/*"]
read: ["body","\r\n\r\n"]
read: ["body_end"]
read: ["eof"]

A typical output of the /advanced location defined above is:

POST /echo HTTP/1.1
Content-Length: 84
User-Agent: Resty/HTTPipe-1.00
Accept: */*
Host: 127.0.0.1

GET /echo HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
User-Agent: Resty/HTTPipe-1.00
Accept: */*

Connection

new

syntax: hp, err = httpipe:new(chunk_size?, sock?)

Creates the httpipe object. In case of failures, returns nil and a string describing the error.

The argument, chunk_size, specifies the buffer size used by cosocket reading operations. Defaults to 8192.

connect

syntax: ok, err = hp:connect(host, port, options_table?)

syntax: ok, err = hp:connect("unix:/path/to/unix.sock", options_table?)

Attempts to connect to the web server.

Before actually resolving the host name and connecting to the remote backend, this method will always look up the connection pool for matched idle connections created by previous calls of this method.

An optional Lua table can be specified as the last argument to this method to specify various connect options:

  • pool : Specifies a custom name for the connection pool being used. If omitted, then the connection pool name will be generated from the string template <host>:<port> or <unix-socket-path>.

set_timeout

syntax: hp:set_timeout(time)

Sets the timeout (in ms) protection for subsequent operations, including the connect method.

ssl_handshake

syntax: hp:ssl_handshake(reused_session?, server_name?, ssl_verify?)

Does SSL/TLS handshake on the currently established connection.

See more: http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpLuaModule#tcpsock:sslhandshake

set_keepalive

syntax: ok, err = hp:set_keepalive(max_idle_timeout, pool_size)

Attempts to puts the current connection into the ngx_lua cosocket connection pool.

Note Normally, it will be called automatically after processing the request. In other words, we cannot release the connection back to the pool unless you consume all the data.

You can specify the max idle timeout (in ms) when the connection is in the pool and the maximal size of the pool every nginx worker process.

In case of success, returns 1. In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

get_reused_times

syntax: times, err = hp:get_reused_times()

This method returns the (successfully) reused times for the current connection. In case of error, it returns nil and a string describing the error.

If the current connection does not come from the built-in connection pool, then this method always returns 0, that is, the connection has never been reused (yet). If the connection comes from the connection pool, then the return value is always non-zero. So this method can also be used to determine if the current connection comes from the pool.

close

syntax: ok, err = hp:close()

Closes the current connection and returns the status.

In case of success, returns 1. In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

Requesting

request

syntax: res, err = hp:request(opts?)

syntax: res, err = hp:request(host, port, opts?)

syntax: res, err = hp:request("unix:/path/to/unix-domain.socket", opts?)

The opts table accepts the following fields:

  • version: Sets the HTTP version. Use 10 for HTTP/1.0 and 11 for HTTP/1.1. Defaults to 11.
  • method: The HTTP method string. Defaults to GET.
  • path: The path string. Default to /.
  • query: Specifies query parameters. Accepts either a string or a Lua table.
  • headers: A table of request headers. Accepts a Lua table.
  • body: The request body as a string, or an iterator function.
  • read_timeout: Sets the timeout in milliseconds for network read operations specially.
  • send_timeout: Sets the timeout in milliseconds for network send operations specially.
  • stream: If set to true, return an iterable res.body_reader object instead of res.body.
  • maxsize: Sets the maximum size in bytes to fetch. A response body larger than this will cause the fucntion to return a exceeds maxsize error. Defaults to nil which means no limit.
  • ssl_verify: A Lua boolean value to control whether to perform SSL verification.

When the request is successful, res will contain the following fields:

  • res.status (number): The resonse status, e.g. 200
  • res.headers (table): A Lua table with response headers.
  • res.body (string): The plain response body.
  • res.body_reader (function): An iterator function for reading the body in a streaming fashion.
  • res.pipe (httpipe): A new http pipe which use the current body_reader as input body by default.

Note All headers (request and response) are noramlized for capitalization - e.g., Accept-Encoding, ETag, Foo-Bar, Baz - in the normal HTTP "standard."

In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

request_uri

syntax: res, err = hp:request_uri(uri, opts?)

The simple interface. Options supplied in the opts table are the same as in the generic interface, and will override components found in the uri itself.

Returns a res object as same as hp:request method.

In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

res.body_reader

The body_reader iterator can be used to stream the response body in chunk sizes of your choosing, as follows:

local reader = res.body_reader

repeat
  local chunk, err = reader(8192)
  if err then
    ngx.log(ngx.ERR, err)
    break
  end

  if chunk then
    -- process
  end
until not chunk

send_request

syntax: ok, err = hp:send_request(opts?)

In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

read_response

syntax: local res, err = hp:read_response(callback?)

The callback table accepts the following fields:

  • header_filter: A callback function for response headers filter
local res, err = hp:read_response{
    header_filter = function (status, headers)
        if status == 200 then
            return 1
        end
end }
  • body_filter: A callback function for response body filter
local res, err = hp:read_response{
    body_filter = function (chunk)
        ngx.print(chunk)
    end
}

Additionally there is no ability to stream the response body in this method. If the response is successful, res will contain the following fields: res.status, res.headers, res.body.

Note When return true in callback function´╝îfilter process will be interrupted.

In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

read

syntax: local typ, res, err = hp:read()

Streaming parser for the full response.

The user just needs to call the read method repeatedly until a nil token type is returned. For each token returned from the read method, just check the first return value for the current token type. The token type can be statusline, header, header_end, body, body_end and eof. About the format of res value, please refer to the above example. For example, several body tokens holding each body data chunk, so res value is equal to the body data chunk.

In case of errors, returns nil with a string describing the error.

eof

syntax: local eof = hp:eof()

If return true indicating already consume all the data; Otherwise, the request there is still no end, you need call hp:close to close the connection forcibly.

Utility

parse_uri

syntax: local scheme, host, port, path, args = unpack(hp:parse_uri(uri))

This is a convenience function allowing one to more easily use the generic interface, when the input data is a URI.

get_client_body_reader

syntax: reader, err = hp:get_client_body_reader(chunk_size?)

Returns an iterator function which can be used to read the downstream client request body in a streaming fashion. For example:

local req_reader = hp:get_client_body_reader()

repeat
  local chunk, err = req_reader(8192)
  if err then
    ngx.log(ngx.ERR, err)
    break
  end

  if chunk then
    -- process
  end
until not chunk

This iterator can also be used as the value for the body field in request params, allowing one to stream the request body into a proxied upstream request.

local client_body_reader, err = hp:get_client_body_reader()

local res, err = hp:request{
   path = "/helloworld",
   body = client_body_reader,
}

Author

Monkey Zhang timebug.info@gmail.com, UPYUN Inc.

Originally started life based on https://github.com/bakins/lua-resty-http-simple.

The part of the interface design inspired from https://github.com/pintsized/lua-resty-http.

Cosocket docs and implementation borrowed from the other lua-resty-* cosocket modules.

Licence

This module is licensed under the 2-clause BSD license.

Copyright (c) 2015, Monkey Zhang timebug.info@gmail.com, UPYUN Inc.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

GitHub

You may find additional configuration tips and documentation for this module in the GitHub repository for nginx-module-httpipe.

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