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html-sanitize: NGINX module to sanitize HTML 5 with whitelisted elements, attributes and CSS

Installation

CentOS/RHEL 6, 7, 8 or Amazon Linux 2

yum -y install https://extras.getpagespeed.com/release-latest.rpm
yum -y install nginx-module-html-sanitize

Enable the module by adding the following at the top of /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:

load_module modules/ngx_http_html_sanitize_module.so;

This document describes nginx-module-html-sanitize v0.2.4 released on Aug 08 2019.


Name

ngx_http_html_sanitize_module - It's base on google's gumbo-parser as HTML5 parser and hackers-painters's katana-parser as inline CSS parser to sanitize HTML with whitelisted elements, whitelisted attributes and whitelisted CSS property.

Status

Production Ready :-)

Example

There is a example of nginx configuration according to the https://dev.w3.org/html5/html-author/#the-elements as the following:

server {
    listen 8888;

    location = /sanitize {
        # Explicitly set utf-8 encoding
        add_header Content-Type "text/html; charset=UTF-8";

        client_body_buffer_size 10M;
        client_max_body_size 10M;

        html_sanitize on;

        # Check https://dev.w3.org/html5/html-author/#the-elements

        # Root Element
        html_sanitize_element html;

        # Document Metadata
        html_sanitize_element head title base link meta style;

        # Scripting
        html_sanitize_element script noscript;

        # Sections
        html_sanitize_element body section nav article aside h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 header footer address;

        # Grouping Content
        html_sanitize_element p hr br pre dialog blockquote ol ul li dl dt dd;

        # Text-Level Semantics
        html_sanitize_element a q cite em strong small mark dfn abbr time progress meter code var samp kbd sub sup span i b bdo ruby rt rp;

        # Edits
        html_sanitize_element ins del;

        # Embedded Content
        htlm_sanitize_element figure img iframe embed object param video audio source canvas map area;

        # Tabular Data
        html_sanitize_element table caption colgroup col tbody thead tfoot tr td th;

        # Forms
        html_sanitize_element form fieldset label input button select datalist optgroup option textare output;

        # Interactive Elements
        html_sanitize_element details command bb menu;

        # Miscellaneous Elements
        html_sanitize_element legend div;

        html_sanitize_attribute *.style;
        html_sanitize_attribute a.href a.hreflang a.name a.rel;
        html_sanitize_attribute col.span col.width colgroup.span colgroup.width;
        html_sanitize_attribute data.value del.cite del.datetime;
        html_sanitize_attribute img.align img.alt img.border img.height img.src img.width;
        html_sanitize_attribute ins.cite ins.datetime li.value ol.reversed ol.stasrt ol.type ul.type;
        html_sanitize_attribute table.align table.bgcolor table.border table.cellpadding table.cellspacing table.frame table.rules table.sortable table.summary table.width;
        html_sanitize_attribute td.abbr td.align td.axis td.colspan td.headers td.rowspan td.valign td.width;
        html_sanitize_attribute th.abbr th.align th.axis th.colspan th.rowspan th.scope th.sorted th.valign th.width;

        html_sanitize_style_property color font-size;

        html_sanitize_url_protocol http https tel;
        html_sanitize_url_domain *.google.com google.com;

        html_sanitize_iframe_url_protocol http https;
        html_sanitize_iframe_url_domain  facebook.com *.facebook.com;
    }
}

And It's recommanded to use the below commnand to sanitize HTML5:

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1>Hello World </h1>" http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=2&attribute=1&style_property=1&style_property_value=1&url_protocol=1&url_domain=0&iframe_url_protocol=1&iframe_url_domain=0

<h1>Hello World </h1>

This querystring element=2&attribute=1&style_property=1&style_property_value=1&url_protocol=1&url_domain=0&iframe_url_protocol=1&iframe_url_domain=0 is the as following:

With ngx_http_html_sanitize_module, we have the ability to specify whether output HTML5's element 、attribute and inline CSS's property by directive and querystring as the following:

whitelisted element

  • disable element:

if we do not want to output any element, we can do this as the following:

curl -X POST -d "<h1>h1</h1>" http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=0
  • enable element:

if we want to output any element, we can do this as the following:

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1>h1</h1><h7>h7</h7>" http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1

<h1>h1</h1><h7>h7</h7>

  • enable whitelisted element:

if we want to output whitelisted element, we can do this as the following

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1>h1</h1><h7>h7</h7>" http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1

<h1>h1</h1>

whitelisted attribute

  • disable attribute:

if we do not want to output any attribute, we can do this as the following:

curl -X POST -d "<h1 ha=\"ha\">h1</h1>" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=0"

<h1>h1</h1>
  • enable attribute:

if we want to output any attribute, we can do this as the following:

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1 ha=\"ha\">h1</h1>" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=1"

<h1 ha="ha">h1</h1>

  • enable whitelisted attribute:

if we want to output whitelisted element, we can do this as the following:

$ curl -X POST -d "<img src=\"/\" ha=\"ha\" />" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=2"

<img src="/" />

whitelisted style property

  • disable style property:

if we do not want to output any style property, we can do this as the following:

## It will do not output any style property
curl -X POST -d "<h1 style=\"color:red;\">h1</h1>" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=1&style_property=0"

<h1>h1</h1>
  • enable style property:

if we want to output any style property, we can do this as the following:

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1 style=\"color:red;text-align:center;\">h1</h1>" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=1&style_property=1"

<h1 style="color:red;text-align:center">h1</h1>

  • enable whitelisted style property:

if we want to output whitelisted style property, we can do this as the following:

$ curl -X POST -d "<h1 style=\"color:red;text-align:center;\" >h1</h1>" "http://127.0.0.1:8888/sanitize?element=1&attribute=1&style_property=2"

<h1 style="color:red;">h1</h1>

Description

Now the implement of ngx_http_html_sanitize_module is based on gumbo-parser and katana-parser. And we make the combo upon it then run it on nginx to as a center web service maintained by professional security people for discarding language-level difference. If we want to gain more higher performance (here is the brenchmark), it's recommanded to write language-level library wrapering above pure c library to overcome the overhead of network transmission.

Benchmark

Testing with wrk -s benchmarks/shot.lua -d 60s "http://127.0.0.1:8888" on Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2630 v3 @ 2.40GHz and 64GB memory

Name Size Avg Latency QPS
hacker_news.html 30KB 9.06ms 2921.82
baidu.html 76KB 13.41ms 1815.75
arabic_newspapers.html 78KB 16.58ms 1112.70
bbc.html 115KB 17.96ms 993.12
xinhua.html 323KB 33.37ms 275.39
google.html 336KB 26.78ms 351.54
yahoo.html 430KB 29.16ms 323.04
wikipedia.html 511KB 57.62ms 160.10
html5_spec.html 7.7MB 1.63s 2.00

TODO

  • gumbo-parser (hard): Improvement with SSE-4.2 to speed up string processing
  • gumbo-parser (hard): Additional performance improvements with algorithm level
  • katana-parser (hard): Improvement with SSE-4.2 to speed up string processing
  • katana-parser (hard): Additional performance improvements with algorithm level
  • directive (optional): Add mode directives to carefully control HTML5 and inline CSS output
  • html_sanitize_attribute (hard): Add new algorithm instead of current hash find to reduce memory allocation
  • tests (easy): Pass more xss security tests
  • querystring (optional): Allow foreign whitelisted querystring to control whitelisted elements、attributes、style_properties.

A tips to optimize performance is learn from the On-CPU Flamegraph as the following:

flamegraph

Directive

html_sanitize

syntax: html_sanitize on | off

default: html_sanitize on

context: location

Specifies whether enable html sanitize handler on location context

html_sanitize_hash_max_size

syntax: html_sanitize_hash_max_size size

default: html_sanitize_hash_max_size 2048

context: location

Sets the maximum size of the element、attribute、style_property、url_protocol、url_domain、iframe_url_protocol、iframe_url_domain hash tables.

html_sanitize_hash_bucket_size

syntax: html_sanitize_hash_bucket_size size

default: html_sanitize_hash_bucket_size 32|64|128

context: location

Sets the bucket size for element、attribute、style_property、url_protocol、url_domain、iframe_url_protocol、iframe_url_domain. The default value depends on the size of the processor’s cache line.

html_sanitize_element

syntax: html_sanitize_element element ...

default: -

context: location

Set the whitelisted HTML5 elements when enable whitelisted element by setting the querystring element whitelist mode as the following:

html_sanitize_element html head body;

html_sanitize_attribute

syntax: html_sanitize_attribute attribute ...

default: -

context: location

Set the whitelisted HTML5 attributes when enable whitelisted element by setting the querystring attribute whitelist mode as the following:

html_sanitize_attribute a.href h1.class;

PS: attribute format must be the same as element.attribute and support *.attribute (prefix asterisk) and element.* (suffix asterisk)

html_sanitize_style_property

syntax: html_sanitize_style_property property ...

default: -

context: location

Set the whitelisted CSS property when enable whitelisted element by setting the querystring style_property whitelist mode as the following:

html_sanitize_style_property color background-color;

html_sanitize_url_protocol

syntax: html_sanitize_url_protocol [protocol] ...

default: -

context: location

Set the allowed URL protocol at linkable attribute when only the URL is absoluted rahter than related and enable URL protocol check by setting the querystring url_protocol check mode as the following:

html_sanitize_url_protocol http https tel;

html_sanitize_url_domain

syntax: html_sanitize_url_domain domain ...

default: -

context: location

Set the allowed URL domain at linkable attribute when only the URL is absoluted rahter than relatived and enable URL protocol check、URL domain check by setting the querystring url_protocol check mode and the querystring [url_domain][#url_domain] check mode as the following:

html_sanitize_url_domain *.google.com google.com;

html_sanitize_iframe_url_protocol

syntax: html_sanitize_iframe_url_protocol [protocol] ...

default: -

context: location

is the same as html_sanitize_url_protocol but only for iframe.src attribute

html_sanitize_iframe_url_protocol http https tel;

html_sanitize_iframe_url_domain

syntax: html_sanitize_iframe_url_domain [protocol] ...

default: -

context: location

is the same as html_sanitize_url_domain but only for iframe.src attribute

html_sanitize_iframe_url_domain *.facebook.com facebook.com;

linkable_attribute

The linkable attribute is the following:

  • a.href
  • blockquote.cite
  • q.cite
  • del.cite
  • img.src
  • ins.cite
  • iframe.src
  • CSS URL function

Querystring

the querystring from request URL is used to control the ngx_http_html_sanitize_module internal action.

document

value: 0 or 1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether append <!DOCTYPE> to response body

html

value: 0 or 1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether append <html></html> to response body

script

value: 0 or 1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether allow <script></script>

style

value: 0 or 1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether allow <style></style>

namespace

value: 0、1 or 2

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies the mode of gumbo-parser with the value as the following:

  • GUMBO_NAMESPACE_HTML: 0
  • GUMBO_NAMESPACE_SVG: 1
  • GUMBO_NAMESPACE_MATHML: 2

context

value: [0, 150)

default: 38(GUMBO_TAG_DIV)

context: querystring

Specifies the context of gumbo-parser with the value at the this file tag_enum.h

element

value: 0、1、2

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies the mode of output element with the value as the following:

  • 0: do not output element
  • 1: output all elements
  • 2: output whitelisted elements

attribute

value: 0、1、2

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies the mode of output attribute with the value as the following:

  • 0: do not output attributes
  • 1: output all attributes
  • 2: output whitelisted attributes

style_property

value: 0、1、2

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies the mode of output CSS property with the value as the following:

  • 0: do not output CSS property
  • 1: output all CSS property
  • 2: output whitelisted CSS property

style_property_value

value: 0、1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies the mode of output CSS property_value with the value as the following:

  • 0: do not check the CSS property's value
  • 1: check the CSS property's value for URL function and IE's expression function to avoid XSS inject

url_protocol

value: 0、1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether check the URL protocol at linkable_attribute. The value is as the following:

  • 0: do not check the URL protocol
  • 1: output whitelisted URL protocol

url_domain

value: 0、1

default: 0

context: querystring

Specifies whether check the URL domain at linkable_attribute when enable url_protocol check. The value is as the following:

  • 0: do not check the URL domain
  • 1: output whitelisted URL domain

iframe_url_protocol

value: 0、1

default: 0

context: querystring

is the same as url_protocol but only for iframe.src

iframe_url_domain

value: 0、1

default: 0

context: querystring

is the same as url_domain but only for iframe.src

ngx_http_html_sanitize_module is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. See LICENSE for the complete license text.

Copyright 2017, By detailyang "Yang Bingwu" Youzan Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

Notice

Note that ngx_http_html_sanitize_module bundles many projects with different license as the following:

google/gumbo-parser: https://github.com/google/gumbo-parser

hackers-painters/katana-parser: https://github.com/hackers-painters/katana-parser

GitHub

You may find additional configuration tips and documentation for this module in the GitHub repository for nginx-module-html-sanitize.

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